We tend to approach war memorials with pathos and a narrative about the futility of war, but the generation that built them were actually proud of them. People wanted to show the pride of sacrifice. They even experienced joy that their fathers, husbands and sons, had stepped up to the plate in the time of need. War memorials were defined in positive terms – as ‘Defence against aggression’, for ‘Justice’, ‘Liberty’ and Glory’. They were a sign of a colossal generational effort to “end all wars, for humanity” and celebrate the gift, that those who fell, gave to future generations.
There were all sorts of ideas put forward for commemorating the war and the people who fought in it, which resulted in a wide variety of memorials. There were official tokens of remembrance in the form of memorial plaques, issued to relatives of the fallen and commemorative “Peace” medals. Charitable care for ex-Servicemen was begun under the auspices of the Flanders Poppy Fund. The red poppy is now internationally recognized as a symbol of Remembrance, with its roots in the tragedy of the First World War. Memorial rolls of honour were put up in factories, sports clubs, railway stations, schools, and universities. Church windows were designed and dedicated to military units or individuals. Memorial buildings were constructed to provide “living memorials”, for example, as community centres, places for rehabilitation or worship.
After the First World War, communities were keen to erect memorials to remember their dead. Over 5,000 memorials were raised in towns across Britain, in the first two years after the War, and some 37,000 exist today in public spaces, in various forms. The demand for war memorials lasted many years and many were not completed until long after the war. The variety and diversity of permanent war memorials may well have been inspired by these earlier Street Shrines. The first and earliest war memorials in Hull, were the ‘Street Shrines’ or ‘Rolls of Honour’, These were created in the early years of the war to commemorate all those locally serving in the armed forces. The idea of Street War memorials started in the East end of London, but it was soon adopted in towns, such as St Albans, and became particularly widespread in Hull. In 1915, St Marks Church was the first to erect a large, wooden board, on the railings outside, showing all the men from St Marks Street serving in the war. The Memorials took many shapes, forms and styles. Some were in stone, wood, lists of name on parchments of paper, Poems, of a collection of framed photographs of men or leading figures of the time. Some included only those men directly involved from the street, others included relatives from other streets. Some ‘Roll of Honours’ covered large areas, such as Wilmington and Sculcoates, which included many streets.
A great deal of work went into designing these ‘Rolls of Honour’. Committees were set up and Ladies went round collecting names, information and money. The names of servicemen, were often written on paper scrolls, or scratched onto wooded boards, and displayed prominently on Street corners. The memorials were often so highly decorated, with flowers, flags and patriotic pictures, so much so that they became known as ‘Street Shrines’. There was keen competition between Streets for the best memorials. Montrose Avenue, boasted the finest Street Memorial, Courtney Street the largest, and Northumberland Avenue drew the largest crowds. The opening ceremonies were grand affairs, with bands, choirs, hundreds of people attending and widely reported in the local newspapers. It was reported that the unveiling of the Wilmington Roll of Honour, on the 12th November 1916, attracted over 10,000 people (HDM 13/11/1916). Some opening ceremonies caused incidents, such as the unveiling of the New George Street memorial, on the 8th October 1916. Here, Thomas Boast, the local Greengrocer, had failed to display a flag in his shop, and was attacked by a crowd for being unpatriotic. For example, Emily Atkin, from New George Street and Alice Brown, from Scott Street, were fined £5 for breaking his shop window and accusing his wife of being ‘Austrian’. The Wellsted Street shrine was described as “of Gothic design, richly upholstered and enclosed in an outer case.” Another local shrine is described below:
…quite a showplace, for the residents put out in a line down the centre, tables containing photos adorned with glasses of flowers and coloured cloth, and there was a homely and pathetic touch furnished by memorial cards of relatives who have lost their lives. A cigar box stood on a table in this terrace, and the hundreds of visitors on Saturday evening [23 September 1916] and again yesterday [24 September 1916] were invited to contribute a copper for our sailors’ and soldiers’ tobacco.”
According to the article above, the Wellsted Street shrine was unveiled on 24 September 1916 by the local vicar and listed 247 names of men serving. The Church Lads Brigade and a local Boy Scout troop attended, “and the band played the general salute when the vicar drew the curtain.”
While Street memorials were widely popular, they relied on the goodwill of residents to maintain them. Inevitably these ‘Rolls of Honour’, could not keep pace with conscription, or the movement of men between regiments and armed services as the war went on. There was also some opposition to the memorials, with people refusing to include their names or saying that the money should be spent on the troops. Some complained that names had been miss-spelt, left out or ignored. Others were forced to move after the death of their husbands and their connection with the street was forgotten. The memorials were often too small to record the increasing numbers of casualties. For example, Bean Street, lost at least 93 men in the War; Waterloo Street 75; Barnsley Street 59; Walker Street 52, Spyvee Street, 51; and hundreds of men died from the Hessle Road, Beverley Road and Holderness Road areas.The declining enthusiasm for war, meant that many Street memorials were not updated after 1916. For example, the current Eton Street, marble memorial, bears little resemblance to its original, which included many more names of men killed in the war. As well as these ommissions, there were also spelling mistakes, wrong intials or nicknames used on street shrines which compromised their accuracy. Sometimes the same servicemen appeared on several memorials, as they moved address, or were included by relatives in different streets. Also, as most ‘Street Shrines’ were only designed as temporary structures, they were not long lasting. The Courtney Street memorial was not updated after 1916 and fell into dis-repair. It was discovered years latter in a shop attic and re-errected in 1924. Many Street memorials were destroyed during the Second World War blitz, which devastated Hull. Others were lost through slum clearance in the 1970’s and post war reconstruction. For example, the Portland Street Shrine, was removed for safety in 1941, and placed in St Stephen’s church , which was then destroyed in the Blitz, in the same year. Only Waller Street attempted to update their memorial after the war, but this has now disappeared. Just a few examples of Hull Street memorials survive today. Most notably, these are at, Sharp Street, Newland Avenue, Eton Street, on Hessle Road and Dansom Lane. Some other examples of street shrines are also preserved in the Hull Transport museum. Below is a ‘Street Shrine’ on Hessle Road, and examples of other Hull ‘Rolls of Honour’ at Providence Row, Newington Street, Courtney Street, St Mary’s, Sculcoates Lane, Sharp Street, Aldbro Street, West Dock Avenue, Pulman Street and Evans Square, Stoneferry, Wilmington, Grange Street, Victor Street and the Groves area of Hull.
The following ‘Street Shrine’ details were reported in the Hull Daily Mail during 1916. They give some idea of the popularity of Street Memorials, and the large numbers of men who enlisted. They also indicate the impact of casualties on these Hull communities. Some of these Street were destroyed during the “Blitz” and during post war slum clearance.
HULL Street Shrines
Alicia Street and Christopher Street Shrine – 65 men serving (08/10/1916),
Aldborough Street Shrine – list 48 men serving including 5 dead (Hull Daily Mail 10/10/1916),
Alexandra Street, Warne Street and Sutton Street shared a memorial, which showed 261 serving and 9 dead (Hull Daily Mail 21/10/1916);
Balfour Street – 157 men serving including 6 dead (HDM 09/11/1916),
Barnsley Street – 256 men serving and 13 dead (Hull Daily Mail 14/11/1916),
Bean Street – 396 serving and 20 dead (HDM 07/10/1916),
Blenheim Street – 83 serving and 5 dead (HDM 26/11/1916)
Brighton Street – 133 serving and 8 dead (HDM 30/08/1916),
Bellamy Street – 51 houses, 38 men serving, and 3 fallen (HDM 16/10/1916);
Bridlington Street – 65 serving and 7 dead (HDM 24/12/1916),
Brunswick Avenue Roll of Honour – 12 men serving (HDM 21/11/1916),
Chiltern Street – 103 men serving;
Church Street – 22 men serving (HDM 10/11/1916),
Conway Street , Rosamond Street, and Sefton Street memorials, showed 167 men serving, 7 of which had been killed (Hull Daily Mail 12/09/1916),
Crystal Terrace, Courtney Street – 15 houses, 13 serving,
Dansom Lane Street Shrine – 142 men serving and 14 dead (HDM 23/10/1916),
Derby Street – 46 men serving (HDM 11/11/1916),
Eastbourne Street – 122 serving plus the names of 13 killed (HDM 08/09/1916),
Emmeline Terrace, St Paul’s Street – 19 houses & 32 men serving;
Flinton Street & St Andrew’s Street Shrine – 300 names with 22 sailors and fishermen lost at sea (HDM 08/09/1916),
Gibson Street – 73 serving and 5 dead (HDM 25/11/1916),
Gillett Street, – its Roll of Honour showed 325 names, of which 24 were dead, (HDM 30/08/1916),
Glasgow Street – 91 served, 7 dead (HDM 01/10/1916),
Grange Street – reported 179 men, of which 5 had been killed and two had lost limbs, by 26/09/1916;
Elm Street & Maple Street, Queens Road – 81 serving and 3 dead (HDM 25/10/1916),
Havelock Street – 127 names and one killed – (HDM 08/09/1916),
Hull Old Town Shrine -188 men serving and 13 dead by 1916,
Lake Street – 55 men serving including 5 killed (HDM 08/07/1917),
Liddell Street – 79 serving and 5 dead (HDM 23/09/1916),
Lincoln Street – 83 men serving (HDM 19/11/1916),
Lockwood Street, lists 103 names with 16 men dead, The Tock family at No:21 have 11 family members serving, including 7 sons. There are also 4 Gorrods, 3 Keeches, 3 Lamberts, and 4 Woods serving. By 1916 it already shows 16 killed, 2 wounded and 2 Prisoners of War. (HDM 05/11/1916),
Lorne Street – 154 men serving, 9 killed, 19 wounded, 2 Prisoners of War and 2 others discharged (HDM 24/11/1917),
Manchester Street – 170 men serving and 5 killed (HDM 30/8/1916),
Massey Street – 70 serving and 4 dead (HDM 19/09/1916),
Mayfield Street – 39 serving and 2 dead (HDM 11/11/1916),
Montrose Avenue, and Gibson Street had 19 houses with 31 men serving, including five brothers. By 28/11/1916, three had been killed, one was missing and 11 others had been wounded.
New George Street – 159 serving and 23 dead (HDM 03/09/1916),
Newland Avenue, Salisbury Crescent and Woodbine Terrace Street Shrines unveiled on 21/12/1916, listed the names of 59 men serving, one of which had been killed (HDM 21/12/1916),
Nicholson Street, Tunis Street and Exchange Street Shrine – 174 serving and 4 dead (HDM 16/10/1916),
Nornabell Street – 275 serving and 25 killed by 1916
Northumberland Avenue Shrine – 228 men served, of which 7 were killed, 2 drowned, 1 died, 1 died of wounds, 15 wounded, 6 Prisoners of War, and Private, J L Elston, EYR was awarded the DCM.,
Norwood Street – 102 men serving and 12 killed (HDM 27/10/1916),
Osborne Street – 163 serving from 115 houses. Six men from one house, 13 killed, 13 wounded & 1 prisoner of war (HDM 30/10/1916),
Park Road Shrine – 75 men served (HDM 11/11/1916),
Portland Street and New Garden Street – 98 men serving and 7 killed, (HDM 30/10/1916),
Portland Street and Garden Street – 98 served and 7 dead (HDM 28/10/1916),
Porter Street and Michael Street – 116 men serving from 88 houses, of which 14 had been killed, 14 wounded, three of them wounded three times, and three others were Prisoners of War (HDM 04/10/1916),
Prior Street, Feather Lane, Prospect Place and Raike Street Shrine – 91 names serving in 1916,
Princes Road Street Shrine – 45 men serving (HDM 14/12/1916),
Providence Row – 181 men serving, and 12 reported killed (HDM 19/09/1916,
Raywell and Russell Street Shrines show 77 men serving and 1 dead (HDM 03/10/1916),
Redbourne Street and Newton Street -117 serving and 7 dead (HDM 13/11/1916),
Reform Street Shrine – 100 serving and 9 dead (HDM 25/10/1916),
Richmond Terrace and Cottingham Drainside Roll of Honour – 95 men serving and 5 dead (HDM 10/11/1916),
Rose Street – 50 houses, 66 men and one Nurse serving, 20/9/1916;
Rosemead Street Shrine – showed 127 serving and 7 dead (HDM 25/10/1916),
Rugby Street and St Andrews Street – 167 men serving and 10 dead (HDM 18/09/1916),
Sarah Ann Terrace – 35 served , 3 dead (HDM 08/09/1916),
Scarborough Street – 112 serving and 2 dead (HDM 30/08/1916),
Scott Street Shrine – 93 serving and 8 dead (HDM 09/10/1916),
Sculcoates Lane Shrine – 152 serving and 8 dead (HDM 09/11/1916),
Servern Street – 79 men serving,
Sharp Street, Newland Avenue – 139 served and 10 dead,
Shaw Street Shrine – 42 serving and 1 dead (HDM 18/11/1916),
Somerset Street Shrine, Hessle Road – 124 serving and 6 dead (HDM 28/09/1916),
South Boulevard Street – 112 serving, 9 dead (HDM 11/10/1916),
South Parade Street Shrine – 141 serving and 7 dead (HDM 03/10/1916),
Spencer Street – 131 serving and 8 dead (HDM 01/12/1916),
Spyvee Street Shrine – 238 men serving including 20 dead (HDM 28/10/1916),
Staniforth Place and Gilbert Street Shrine – 152 serving and 13 dead (HDM 04/10/1916),
Stanley Street – 196 men serving, and 4 dead (HDM 21/11/1916),
Strickland Street – 276 names – 24 killed and 3 Prisoners of War (HDM 26/10/1916),
Subway Street – 146 serving and 8 dead (HDM 19/09/1916),
Sykes Street – 231 men serving and 17 killed (HDM 03/10/1916),
St Marks Street and Church Memorial – lists 152 names in 1915.
Trinity Street – 44 men serving (HDM 04/10/1916),
Walker Street – 300 men had enlisted and 22 dead (HDM 26/9/1916),
Walilker Street – 48 men serving and 2 dead (HDM21/11/1916),
Waller Street – 167 men serving and 15 killed (HDM 30/10/1916),
Waterloo Street, Sarah Ann Terrace, – 31 houses, 35 men serving, 3 killed and 2 wounded;
Welbeck Street Shrine – 72 men serving in 1916,
Wellsted Street and Gee Street showed 247 men serving and 12 dead (HDM 26/09/1916),
West Parade Street Shrine – 174 men serving and 19 dead (HDM 14/10/1916),
William Street – 144 serving and 11 dead (HDM 06/10/1916),
Williamson Street Shrine – 124 serving and 6 dead (HDM 08/11/1916),
Wilmington Roll of Honour – listed 460 names of those serving (HDM 13/11/16),
Witty Street – 70 men serving, of which 2 had been killed in 1916,
Worthing Street – 98 names & 5 killed (HDM 19/09/1916),
Woodcock Street – 215 serving and 5 dead (HDM 25/11/1916),
Wyndham Street and Wenlock Street, – 145 men serving (HDM 17/11/1916),
Hull had many more Street Memorials during the First World War. While these have now largely disappeared you can search this website to find the casualties on each street in Hull. This website records over 9,000 men from Hull or with a Hull connection. Their addresses come from local newspapers, army records, Census details or local trade directories.
Many Hull firms, such as Reckitt’s and the Wilson Shipping Line had workplace memorials. The Hull & Barnsley Railway Company, displayed a bronze plaque, with the names of 183 men killed in the war. Unlike Belgium, France and Italy, the majority of Britain’s 750,000 war dead, are buried abroad and have no known graves. This distance, absence from home, and deep sense of loss, has remained a strong part of family histories ever since. It is the reason why war memorials continue to be important in Britain, and commemorating the First World War still remains heartfelt, even after a 100 years. Hull City Council also produce a book to commemorate the Peace after the First World War and these were given to all school children as a Souvenir.
Hull Street Memorials
The first and earliest war memorials in Hull, were the ‘Street Shrines’ or ‘Rolls of Honour’.While Street memorials were popular, they relied on the goodwill of residents to maintain them. Inevitably these ‘Rolls of Honour’. could not keep pace with conscription, or the movement of men transferring between regiments and other armed services. There was also some opposition to the memorials, with people refusing to include their names, or saying that the money should be spent on the troops at the front. Some complained that names had been miss-spelt, or ignored or contained other errors.
The memorials were often too small to record the increasing numbers of casualties. For example, Bean Street, with a population of over 3,000 people, saw hundreds of men enlist and over 90 men killed. The declining enthusiasm for war, meant that many Street memorials were not updated after 1916 and they became inaccurate. The Eton Street, marble memorial, bears little resemblance to its original, which included many more names of men killed in the war. Also, most ‘Street Shrines’ were only designed as temporary structures. Some were merely names written on paper and they were not long lasting. Many Street memorials were destroyed during the bombing of Hull in 1941. Others were lost through slum clearance in the 1970’s, and post war reconstruction. Just a few examples of Hull Street memorials survive today. Most notably, these are located at Sharp Street, Newland Avenue, Eton Street, on Hessle Road and Dansom Lane. Some other examples of street shrines, are also preserved in the Hull Transport museum.
Street Memorials were never repeated during the Second World War.
Workplaces also created their own war memorials. Hull’s world famous Reckitt’s firm, saw 70 of its men join at the outbreak of war and by 1917, 820 men had enlisted. A total of 1,108 Reckitt employees, served from its world wide workforce, with 153 employees killed and 50% of the remainder wounded or disabled. In tribute to their service, Sir James Reckitt errected a memorial fountain in the grounds of its Hull Office. The picture to the right shows the Hull Post Office memorial at their sorting Office, in St Peter’s Street. The Hull and Barnsley Railway Line commissioned a bronze plaque listing the 178 employees who died in the First World War. The Hull Post Office, lost at least 46 employees. Schools also produced their own war memorials. Hymers school memorial, contains the names of 116 former Hull pupils. Hull Grammar school memorial lost 88 former pupils in the Great War. The Clifton Street School Memorial (below) recorded 66 pupils killed in the First World War. Hull’s Municipal Technical College, listed 52 former students on their Park Street memorial. The names of 28 Hull teachers are recorded on a bronze tablet mounted in Hull’s Guildhall .
The ‘ww1hull.org.uk’ site, recreates these memorials, to highlight Hull’s forgotten history. After the War, remembrance became paramount, to ensure that the dead had not died in vain, and because so many men had no known grave. Like London, Hull built its own cenotaph to remember its war dead. It was erected at Paragon Square, Ferensway, to a design by T. Harold Hughes. Paid entirely through public donations, at a cost of £24,000, the Cenotaph was built by Quibell and Son (Hull), and unveiled on the 20th September 1924. The Hull Cenotaph is a simple, design, devoid of any representations of heroism and victory, or any religious symbolism. It provides a blank canvas for the viewer to project their own feelings of war. Hull’s Cenotaph remains a successful design. Even today, it still evokes the eternal, human feelings, of death and loss. It bears the following inscription:-
ERECTED TO THE MEMORY OF THE MEN OF KINGSTON-UPON-HULL WHO LAID DOWN THEIR LIVES FOR THEIR COUNTRY IN THE GREAT WAR 1914-1918 AND IN THE WORLD WAR 1939-1945 THEIR NAME LIVETH FOR EVERMORE. In front, is the South African War Memorial (1899-1902) unveiled on 5th November 1904.
As a practical memorial to those who survived, Hull established the City of Hull Great War Trust, in 1918. It was funded through voluntary donations and used to help those wounded and disabled and the dependents of those lost in the war. The Great War Trust was a unique idea pioneered in Hull and helped men and women from all forces, including the fishing fleet and mercantile marine. The Trust distributed nearly £300,000 and assisted over 4,000 people before it was closed in 1983.
On the 16th October 1927, the Kingston Upon Hull War Memorial was unveiled at the French village of Oppy. This remembered the men of Kingston-upon-Hull and all local units who gave their lives in the Great War: Many of the casualties of 31st Division who died at Oppy were from the Hull area. The ground of which the memorial stands was donated by the Vicomte and Vicomtesse du Bouexic de la Driennays in memory of their 22 year old son Pierre, an NCO of the French 504th Tank Regiment who was killed in action at Guyencourt on 8 August 1918. It too, is located on the village square of Oppy.
(Pictures above include:the Bronze plaque of the Hull Technical college, Park Street: Hull Boys Club Memorial formerly at Roper Street; the marble Post Office memorial, St Peter’s Square, Hull; Clifton Street School Roll of Honour 1914-18, Hull’s Cenotaph memorial, Paragon Square, and the Hull Kingston Memorial, Oppy Wood, France.) For other memorials see the following link
Thank You to “Hull, the Good Old Days” Facebook, for the above photos.